Pneumonia is an infection that occurs in the air sacs in the person’s lungs. Infection caused by pneumonia occurs on a side of the lungs or both. Infected air sacs will be filled with fluid or pus (purulent phlegm). Viral, bacterial, or fungal infections are the main causes of pneumonia. Pneumonia is better known as a wet lung in Indonesia.This disease can not only affect adults but also occurs in children, to newborns.
Causes and Risk Factors of Pneumonia
The causes of pneumonia are varying but based on the organism and its spread, pneumonia can be divided into two, namely community pneumonia whose spread occurs in the community (public environment) and pneumonia that is transmitted in hospitals. Organisms that cause pneumonia are transmitted in the public environment in contrast to hospitals generally, organisms that cause pneumonia that’s transmitted to hospitals are difficult to treat.
Although it happens to anyone, some people are susceptible to pneumonia, such as:
- Children aged 2 years and under 2 years.
- Adults over the age of 65 years.
- Hospitalized for a long time.
- Be treated in the ICU and use a ventilator (breathing apparatus).
- Have chronic lung disease or heart disease.
- People who have low body immunity (such as people with HIV) or people who take drugs that suppress the immune system, and are on a chemotherapy course.
Indications also mild symptoms of pneumonia generally resemble the cold symptoms, such as fever and cough. These symptoms have a longer duration when compared to the common cold. If left unchecked and not treated, severe symptoms can appear, such as:
- Chest pain when breathing or coughing.
- Cough with phlegm.
- Easily tired.
- Fever and chills.
- Nausea and vomiting.
- Hard to breathe.
- Disorders of consciousness (especially in people> 65 years old).
- People with> 65 years of age and who have immune system disorders, generally experience hypothermia.
In children and infants, symptoms usually appear in the form of high fever, the child always looks tired, does not want to eat, productive cough, and shortness of breath, so that the child’s breathing becomes fast.
Diagnosis of pneumonia can be done with history taking, physical examination, and also supporting examination. On history taking and physical examination, the doctor looks for signs and symptoms, then on examination of breath sounds usually found abnormalities. The most frequently performed investigation is through imaging which is a chest x-ray.
On the chest x-ray, the doctor looks at the location of the infection that occurred. In addition, laboratory blood tests are performed to find out what organisms are causing the infection.
Treatment for pneumonia
Treatment and treatment for pneumonia cases are to overcome the infection that occurs and provide supportive therapy. The doctor will give antibiotics that must be consumed until they run out if the infection is caused by bacteria. While supportive therapy can be given in the form of:
- Fever-lowering drugs if a person has a high fever and has disturbing activities.
- Cough medicine to reduce the frequency of coughing and thawing phlegm that cannot get out.
The doctor also recommends that people with hospitalization, if some of these conditions occur:
- > 65 years old;
- Experiencing disturbance of consciousness;
- Has poor kidney function;
- Very low blood pressure (<90 / <60 mmHg).
- Very fast breathing (at> 30 x / minute);
- Body temperature below normal; and
- Pulse rate <50x / minute or> 100x / minute.
Prevention of Pneumonia
Pneumonia can be prevented through several efforts, namely:
- Personal hygiene;
- Do not smoke; and
- Maintain good body immunity by eating healthy foods and exercising diligently.